Understanding Snort's Unified2 output

In this edition of the Snort Report, learn how using Snort's source code can help solution providers understand Snort's new Unified2 output.

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Welcome to the 21st edition of the Snort Report! In July 2007 I described Snort's Unified output, first released in July 2001 with Snort 1.8.0. Unified output allows Snort to write sets of data to a sensor's hard drive. Writing to the hard drive, instead of performing database inserts, allows Snort to operate faster and minimize packet loss.

Unified2 output first appeared in Snort 2.8.0, released in September 2007. When asked to describe the new output format, Sourcefire developer Steve Sturges posted this response to the snort-devel mailing list:

More on Snort
For more on the open source network intrusion detection software, check out our other Snort Reports.

"[U]nified2 has a more extensible format and allows for other data beyond just events and packets. The record data is independent of the type. In the future, performance stats, extended portscan information will be logged via Unified2.

For example, Unified2 supports logging of IPv6 addresses in an event record, whereas events under unified output did not because of the fixed data structure for the event output type."

To understand Unified2 output, start with Snort's source code. Looking in src/output-plugins/spo_unified2.c shows the format for Unified2 records.

/* Each unified 2 record will start out with one of these */ typedef struct _Unified2RecordHeader
{ uint32_t type; /* Type of header. A set most-significant bit indicates presence of extended header */ uint32_t length;
} Unified2RecordHeader;
/* The Unified2Event and Unified2Packet structures below are copied from the * original unified 2 library, sfunified2 */ typedef struct _Unified2Event
{ uint32_t sensor_id;
uint32_t event_id;
uint32_t event_second;
uint32_t event_microsecond;
uint32_t signature_id;
uint32_t generator_id;
uint32_t signature_revision;
uint32_t classification_id;
uint32_t priority_id;
uint32_t ip_source;
uint32_t ip_destination;
uint16_t sport_itype;
uint16_t dport_icode;
uint8_t protocol;
uint8_t packet_action;
} Unified2Event;
typedef struct _Unified2Event_MPLS {
uint32_t sensor_id;
uint32_t event_id;
uint32_t event_second;
uint32_t event_microsecond;
uint32_t signature_id;
uint32_t generator_id;
uint32_t signature_revision;
uint32_t classification_id;
uint32_t priority_id;
uint32_t ip_source;
uint32_t ip_destination;
uint16_t sport_itype;
uint16_t dport_icode;
uint8_t protocol;
uint8_t packet_action;
uint32_t mpls_label;
} Unified2Event_MPLS;

There are also typedef struct _Unified2Event6 and typedef struct _Unified2Event6_MPLS but because we'll only deal with IPv4 here, we won't look at those. The final record content includes the following:

typedef struct _Unified2Packet {
uint32_t sensor_id;
uint32_t event_id;
uint32_t event_second;
uint32_t packet_second;
uint32_t packet_microsecond;
uint32_t linktype;
uint32_t packet_length;
uint8_t packet_data[4];
} Unified2Packet;

To generate some Unified2 records, we'll use the following snortconf.test file. For comparison's sake we'll generate Unified and Unified2 records.


preprocessor frag3_global: max_frags 65536
preprocessor frag3_engine: policy first detect_anomalies
preprocessor stream5_global: max_tcp 8192, track_tcp yes, \ track_udp no
preprocessor stream5_tcp: policy first, use_static_footprint_sizes
preprocessor http_inspect: global \
iis_unicode_map unicode.map 1252
preprocessor http_inspect_server: server default \
profile all ports { 80 8080 8180 } oversize_dir_length 500
output alert_unified: filename snort.alert, limit 128
output alert_unified2: filename snort.alert.u2, limit 128, nostamp
alert tcp any any -> any 80 (msg:"LOCAL http_header test for gzip"; content: "gzip"; http_header; sid:2000001;)
alert tcp any any -> any 80 (msg:"LOCAL http_method test for GET"; content: "GET"; http_method; sid:2000002;)

We need to create our own sid-msg.map file (or make modifications to the existing sid-msg.map file) to assist deciphering Unified and Unified2 output. I call this file sid-msg.map.tao.

# $Id$
# Format: SID || MSG || Optional References || Optional References ...
# SID -> MSG map
2000001 || LOCAL http_header test for gzip
2000002 || LOCAL http_method test for GET

I'm processing a packet trace generated by visiting www.testmyids.com using the Lynx Web browser. I'm sure I'll trigger a few alerts.

freebsd70:/root# /usr/local/snort-2.8.3/bin/snort -r /tmp/www.testmyids.com.pcap -l /tmp/09nov08a/ -c /usr/local/snort-2.8.3/snortconf.test ...edited...
Action Stats:
ALERTS: 2
LOGGED: 2
PASSED: 0
...truncated...

As you can see, Snort recorded two alerts. A look in the directory in which we logged Unified, Unified2 and Pcap file format shows the following:

freebsd70:/root# ls -al /tmp/09nov08a/
total 10
drwxr-xr-x 2 root wheel 512 Nov 9 13:52 .
drwxrwxrwt 11 root wheel 1024 Nov 9 13:51 ..
-rw------- 1 root wheel 144 Nov 9 13:52 snort.alert.1226256751
-rw------- 1 root wheel 120 Nov 9 13:52 snort.alert.u2
-rw------- 1 root wheel 620 Nov 9 13:52 snort.log.1226256751

Tcpdump shows us the snort.log.1226256751 file contains the two packets which caused the two Snort alerts.

# tcpdump -nr /tmp/09nov08a/snort.log.1226256751
reading from file /tmp/09nov08a/snort.log.1226256751, link-type EN10MB (Ethernet)
13:18:45.400180 IP 192.168.2.103.38464 > 82.165.50.118.80: P 3479328395:3479328623(228) ack 2318767297 win 46
13:18:45.400180 IP 192.168.2.103.38464 > 82.165.50.118.80: P 0:228(228) ack 1 win 46

snort.alert.1226256751 is a Unified format file. snort.alert.u2 is a Unified2 format file. Let's use the venerable Barnyard program to make sense of the Unified output represented by snort.alert.1226256751.

freebsd70:/root# barnyard -c barnyard.conf -R -L /tmp/by/ -g /usr/local/src/snort-2.8.3/etc/gen-msg.map -s sid-msg.map.tao -p /usr/local/src/snort-2.8.3/etc/classification.config -o /tmp/09nov08a/snort.alert.1226256751
Barnyard Version 0.2.0 (Build 32)
Program Variables:
Batch processing mode
Config dir: /root
Config file: /root/barnyard.conf
Sid-msg file: /root/sid-msg.map.tao
Gen-msg file: /usr/local/src/snort-2.8.3/etc/gen-msg.map
Class file: /usr/local/src/snort-2.8.3/etc/classification.config
Hostname: freebsd70
Interface: le0
BPF Filter:
Log dir: /tmp/by/
Verbosity: 0
Localtime: 0
File list:
/tmp/09nov08a/snort.alert.1226256751
Output plugins enabled for 'alert' records
-------------------------------------------------------
OpAlertFast configured
Filename: alert_fast.by
=======================================================
Output plugins enabled for 'log' records
-------------------------------------------------------
None configured
=======================================================
Output plugins enabled for 'stream_stat' records
-------------------------------------------------------
None configured
=======================================================

That looks good. Now let's ask Barnyard to create some alerts for us.

freebsd70:/root# barnyard -c barnyard.conf -v -L /tmp/by/ -g /usr/local/src/snort-2.8.3/etc/gen-msg.map -s sid-msg.map.tao -p /usr/local/src/snort-2.8.3/etc/classification.config -o /tmp/09nov08a/snort.alert.1226256751
Barnyard Version 0.2.0 (Build 32)
Processing: /tmp/09nov08a/snort.alert.1226256751
Number of records: 2
Exiting
freebsd70:/root# ls -al /tmp/by/
total 6
drwxr-xr-x 2 root wheel 512 Nov 9 14:13 .
drwxrwxrwt 12 root wheel 1024 Nov 9 14:12 ..
-rw-r--r-- 1 root wheel 479 Nov 9 14:13 alert_fast.by
freebsd70:/root# cat /tmp/by/alert_fast.by
11/09/08-18:18:45.400180 {TCP} 192.168.2.103:38464 -> 82.165.50.118:80
[**] [1:2000001:0] LOCAL http_header test for gzip [**]
[Classification: Unknown] [Priority: 0]
------------------------------------------------------------------------
11/09/08-18:18:45.400180 {TCP} 192.168.2.103:38464 -> 82.165.50.118:80
[**] [1:2000002:0] LOCAL http_method test for GET [**]
[Classification: Unknown] [Priority: 0]
------------------------------------------------------------------------

As you can see we have two alerts triggered by traffic in the packet trace and logged in Unified format, deciphered by Barnyard. Thus far we've made progress deciphering Unified records, but we want something to make sense of Unified2 records. One option is Jason Brvenik's SnortUnified.pm. It turns out that his software isn't as output-friendly as Barnyard, but those familiar with Perl can probably build on Jason's work.

First we need to install Subversion so we can use the svn tool to check out SnortUnified.pm.

freebsd70:/usr/local/src# pkg_add -r subversion
Fetching ftp://ftp.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/i386/packages-7.0-release/Latest/subversion.tbz... Done.
...edited...
freebsd70:/usr/local/src# rehash

Next we use svn to check out SnortUnified.pm.

freebsd70:/usr/local/src# svn checkout http://snort-unified-perl.googlecode.com/svn/trunk/ snort-unified-perl-read-only
A snort-unified-perl-read-only/make_bundle.sh
A snort-unified-perl-read-only/LICENSE
A snort-unified-perl-read-only/dist
A snort-unified-perl-read-only/samples
A snort-unified-perl-read-only/samples/uf_syslog.pl
A snort-unified-perl-read-only/samples/test.private
A snort-unified-perl-read-only/samples/ufdbtest.pl
A snort-unified-perl-read-only/samples/uf_signer.pl
A snort-unified-perl-read-only/samples/uf_csv_handler.pl
A snort-unified-perl-read-only/samples/snort-test.pl
A snort-unified-perl-read-only/samples/test.public
A snort-unified-perl-read-only/samples/README
A snort-unified-perl-read-only/samples/uf_csv.pl
A snort-unified-perl-read-only/samples/uf_csv_qualifier.pl
A snort-unified-perl-read-only/samples/signer_keygen.pl
A snort-unified-perl-read-only/samples/pcre_sample.pl
A snort-unified-perl-read-only/samples/uf_xml.pl
A snort-unified-perl-read-only/samples/pcaptodb.pl
A snort-unified-perl-read-only/samples/speedtest.pl
A snort-unified-perl-read-only/samples/barnyard.pl
A snort-unified-perl-read-only/samples/uf_hasher.pl
A snort-unified-perl-read-only/SnortUnified.pm
A snort-unified-perl-read-only/AUTHORS
A snort-unified-perl-read-only/THANKS
A snort-unified-perl-read-only/COPYING
A snort-unified-perl-read-only/SnortUnified
A snort-unified-perl-read-only/SnortUnified/Database.pm
A snort-unified-perl-read-only/SnortUnified/TextOutput.pm
A snort-unified-perl-read-only/SnortUnified/Decoders.pm
A snort-unified-perl-read-only/SnortUnified/MetaData.pm
A snort-unified-perl-read-only/SnortUnified/Handlers.pm
A snort-unified-perl-read-only/README
U snort-unified-perl-read-only
Checked out revision 26.

You'll notice several Perl scripts in the samples directory. We'll use a few of these to demonstrate what SnortUnified.pm can do. I also need a few more FreeBSD packages.

freebsd70:/usr/local/src# pkg_add -r p5-NetPacket
Fetching ftp://ftp.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/i386/packages-7.0-release/Latest/p5-NetPacket.tbz... Done.

We're ready to see how SnortUnified.pm can help us. Let's try uf_csv.pl first.

samples# perl uf_csv.pl /tmp/09nov08a/snort.alert.u2 row
1,0,1,1226254725,400180,2000001,1,0,0,0,3232236135,1386558070,38464,80,6,0
2,0,2,1226254725,400180,2000002,1,0,0,0,3232236135,1386558070,38464,80,6,0
^C

I exited by hitting ctrl-c. You can see that this Perl script relied on SnortUnified.pm to find the two Snort alerts we knew to be contained in our Unified2 output, snort.alert.u2. Unfortunately, there's nothing easy to read there for the average person. We can recognize the SIDs (2000001 and 2000002), the source and destination IP addresses in DWORD format (3232236135 is 192.168.2.103, 1386558070 is 82.165.50.118), the source and destination ports (38464, 80) and the protocol (6 for TCP). (Try converting the DWORD IP addresses to dotted decimal notation.

A second option is to try snort-test.pl. I had to modify this script so it knew where to find a few configuration files. My version is called snort-test-tao.pl.

samples# diff snort-test.pl snort-test-tao.pl
9,10c9,10
< my $sids = get_snort_sids("/usr/snort/rules/sid-msg.map","/usr/snort/rules/gen-msg.map");
< my $class = get_snort_classifications("/usr/snort/rules/classification.config");
---
> my $sids = get_snort_sids("/root/sid-msg.map.tao","/usr/local/src/snort-2.8.3/etc/gen-msg.map");
> my $class = get_snort_classifications("/usr/local/src/snort-2.8.3/etc/classification.config");

Running snort-test-tao.pl against the Unified2 file produced these results.

samples# perl snort-test-tao.pl /tmp/09nov08a/snort.alert.u2
../SnortUnified.pm:455 : Handling unified file with 32bit timevals
../SnortUnified.pm:490 : No match on magic, assuming unified2
../SnortUnified/Handlers.pm:248 : Checking handler unified_opened
../SnortUnified/Handlers.pm:256 : No registered handler for unified_opened
../SnortUnified.pm:768 : Nothing to handle for unified2
../SnortUnified/Handlers.pm:248 : Checking handler read_header
../SnortUnified/Handlers.pm:256 : No registered handler for read_header
../SnortUnified.pm:516 : Handling UNIFIED2 file
../SnortUnified/Handlers.pm:248 : Checking handler read_data
../SnortUnified/Handlers.pm:256 : No registered handler for read_data
../SnortUnified.pm:540 : Header type is 7 with size of 52
../SnortUnified/Handlers.pm:248 : Checking handler read_data
../SnortUnified/Handlers.pm:256 : No registered handler for read_data
../SnortUnified.pm:548 : Read a record of 52 bytes
../SnortUnified.pm:549 : Handling type 7
../SnortUnified.pm:568 : Handling an IDS event from the unified2 file
../SnortUnified.pm:570 : Unpacking with mask N11n2c2
../SnortUnified.pm:574 : Field sensor_id is set to 0
../SnortUnified.pm:574 : Field event_id is set to 1
../SnortUnified.pm:574 : Field tv_sec is set to 1226254725
../SnortUnified.pm:574 : Field tv_usec is set to 400180
../SnortUnified.pm:574 : Field sig_id is set to 2000001
../SnortUnified.pm:574 : Field sig_gen is set to 1
../SnortUnified.pm:574 : Field sig_rev is set to 0
../SnortUnified.pm:574 : Field class is set to 0
../SnortUnified.pm:574 : Field pri is set to 0
../SnortUnified.pm:574 : Field sip is set to 3232236135
../SnortUnified.pm:574 : Field dip is set to 1386558070
../SnortUnified.pm:574 : Field sp is set to 38464
../SnortUnified.pm:574 : Field dp is set to 80
../SnortUnified.pm:574 : Field protocol is set to 6
../SnortUnified.pm:574 : Field pkt_action is set to 0
../SnortUnified/Handlers.pm:248 : Checking handler unified2_event
../SnortUnified/Handlers.pm:256 : No registered handler for unified2_event
../SnortUnified/Handlers.pm:248 : Checking handler unified2_record
../SnortUnified/Handlers.pm:256 : No registered handler for unified2_record
0,0,1,1226254725,400180,2000001,1,0,0,0,3232236135,1386558070,38464,80,6,0
../SnortUnified.pm:516 : Handling UNIFIED2 file
../SnortUnified/Handlers.pm:248 : Checking handler read_data
../SnortUnified/Handlers.pm:256 : No registered handler for read_data
../SnortUnified.pm:540 : Header type is 7 with size of 52
../SnortUnified/Handlers.pm:248 : Checking handler read_data
../SnortUnified/Handlers.pm:256 : No registered handler for read_data
../SnortUnified.pm:548 : Read a record of 52 bytes
../SnortUnified.pm:549 : Handling type 7
../SnortUnified.pm:568 : Handling an IDS event from the unified2 file
../SnortUnified.pm:570 : Unpacking with mask N11n2c2
../SnortUnified.pm:574 : Field sensor_id is set to 0
../SnortUnified.pm:574 : Field event_id is set to 2
../SnortUnified.pm:574 : Field tv_sec is set to 1226254725
../SnortUnified.pm:574 : Field tv_usec is set to 400180
../SnortUnified.pm:574 : Field sig_id is set to 2000002
../SnortUnified.pm:574 : Field sig_gen is set to 1
../SnortUnified.pm:574 : Field sig_rev is set to 0
../SnortUnified.pm:574 : Field class is set to 0
../SnortUnified.pm:574 : Field pri is set to 0
../SnortUnified.pm:574 : Field sip is set to 3232236135
../SnortUnified.pm:574 : Field dip is set to 1386558070
../SnortUnified.pm:574 : Field sp is set to 38464
../SnortUnified.pm:574 : Field dp is set to 80
../SnortUnified.pm:574 : Field protocol is set to 6
../SnortUnified.pm:574 : Field pkt_action is set to 0
../SnortUnified/Handlers.pm:248 : Checking handler unified2_event
../SnortUnified/Handlers.pm:256 : No registered handler for unified2_event
../SnortUnified/Handlers.pm:248 : Checking handler unified2_record
../SnortUnified/Handlers.pm:256 : No registered handler for unified2_record
1,0,2,1226254725,400180,2000002,1,0,0,0,3232236135,1386558070,38464,80,6,0
../SnortUnified.pm:516 : Handling UNIFIED2 file
...truncated...

At this point snort-test-tao.pl entered a loop, waiting for more entries. I exited with ctrl-c. Again you can see two records listed, but this time there's a breakdown by field so you can see what they mean. Jason's barnyard.pl script includes functionality to decode Unified2 files and insert records into a database. I sent a draft of this article to Jason, and in response he provided a new script -- snort-alert.pl! To retrieve it, I did the following:

freebsd70:/usr/local/src# svn update http://snort-unified-perl.googlecode.com/svn/trunk/ snort-unified-perl-read-only
Skipped 'http://snort-unified-perl.googlecode.com/svn/trunk'
A snort-unified-perl-read-only/samples/snort-alert.pl
U snort-unified-perl-read-only/samples/uf_csv.pl

I created snort-alert-tao.pl and made the same adjustments that I made to snort-test.pl. A sample run produced the following:

samples# perl snort-alert-tao.pl /tmp/09nov08a/snort.alert.u2
Sun Nov 9 18:18:45 2008 {} 192.168.2.103:38464 -> 82.165.50.118:80
[**] [1:2000001:0] LOCAL http_header test for gzip [**]
[Classification: unknown] [Priority: 0]
[Xref => None]
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sun Nov 9 18:18:45 2008 {} 192.168.2.103:38464 -> 82.165.50.118:80
[**] [1:2000002:0] LOCAL http_method test for GET [**]
[Classification: unknown] [Priority: 0]
[Xref => None]
------------------------------------------------------------------------
^C

Jason also mentioned, "If you disable debug in snort-test-tao.pl by setting $debug = 0; you will get more intelligible output." An alternative to SnortUnified.pm for processing Unified2 files is Barnyard2 by Firnsy of the Securixlive project. I tested a prerelease version (which may be posted by the time you read this).

freebsd70:/usr/local/src# tar -xzf barnyard2-0.5.tar.gz
freebsd70:/usr/local/src# cd barnyard2-0.5
freebsd70:/usr/local/src/barnyard2-0.5# mkdir /usr/local/barnyard2-0.5
freebsd70:/usr/local/src/barnyard2-0.5# ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/barnyard2-0.5
...edited...
freebsd70:/usr/local/src/barnyard2-0.5# make
...edited...
freebsd70:/usr/local/src/barnyard2-0.5# make install
...truncated...

To use Barnyard2 I created the following configuration file.

freebsd70:/root# cat barnyard2.conf
config class-map: /usr/local/src/snort-2.8.3/etc/classification.config
config gen-msg-map: /usr/local/src/snort-2.8.3/etc/gen-msg.map
config sid-msg-map: /root/sid-msg.map.tao
input unified2
output alert_fast: stdout, session, msg, class, xref

Next I checked out the runtime options and tried a sample run.

freebsd70:/root# /usr/local/barnyard2-0.5/bin/barnyard2 -h
/usr/local/barnyard2-0.5/bin/barnyard2: invalid option -- h
______ -*> Barnyard for Snort! <*-
/ ,,_ \ Version 2.0.4 (Build 47)
|o" )~| By the SXL.com team: http://www.securixlive.com/contact.html
+ '''' + Snort by Martin Roesch & The Snort Team: http://www.snort.org/team.html
(C) Copyright 1998-2007 Sourcefire Inc., et al.
USAGE: /usr/local/barnyard2-0.5/bin/barnyard2 [-options]
General Options:
-? Show this information
-c Use configuration file
-g Run barnyard gid as group (or gid) after initialization
-m Set umask =
-q Quiet. Don't show banner and status report
-u Run barnyard uid as user (or uid) after initialization
-v Be verbose
-C Read the classification map from
-D Run barnyard in background (daemon) mode
-G Read the gen-msg map from
-L Write output files in
-S Read the sid-msg map from
-T Test and report on the current configuration
-U Use UTC for timestamps
-V Show version and exit

Continual Processing Options: -a Archive processed files to
-f Use as the base filename pattern
-d Read spool files from
-n Only process new events
-w Enable bookmarking using

Batch Processing Mode Options:
-o Enable batch processing mode

Longname options and their corresponding single char version
--classification Same as -C
--gen-msg Same as -G
--sid-msg Same as -S
--pid-path Specify the path for the barnyard PID file
--create-pidfile Create PID file, even when not in Daemon mode
--nolock-pidfile Do not try to lock barnyard PID file
--help Same as -?
--version Same as -V

freebsd70:/root# /usr/local/barnyard2-0.5/bin/barnyard2 -v -L tmp/ -c barnyard2.conf -o /tmp/09nov08a/snort.alert.u2

--== Initializing Barnyard ==--
Initializing Input Plugins!
Initializing Output Plugins!
Parsing rules files barnyard2.conf
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Initializing rule chains...
Found class-map config directive (/usr/local/src/snort-2.8.3/etc/classification.config)
Found gen-msg-map config directive (/usr/local/src/snort-2.8.3/etc/gen-msg.map)
Found sid-msg-map config directive (/root/sid-msg.map.tao)
--== Initialization Complete ==--
______ -*> Barnyard for Snort! <*-
/ ,,_ \ Version 2.0.4 (Build 47)
|o" )~| By the SXL.com team: http://www.securixlive.com/contact.html
+ '''' +
Snort by Martin Roesch & The Snort Team: http://www.snort.org/team.html
(C) Copyright 1998-2007 Sourcefire Inc., et al.
Processing: /tmp/09nov08a/snort.alert.u2
Event ID: 1 -------------------
11/09-13:18:45.400180 {TCP} 192.168.2.103:38464-82.165.50.118:80
[**] [1:2000001:0] LOCAL http_header test for gzip [**]
[Classification: Unkown] [Priority: 0]
----------------------------------------
Event ID: 2 -------------------
11/09-13:18:45.400180 {TCP} 192.168.2.103:38464-82.165.50.118:80
[**] [1:2000002:0] LOCAL http_method test for GET [**]
[Classification: Unkown] [Priority: 0]
----------------------------------------

Leaving due to signal: -1
Number of records: 2
Run time prior to being shutdown was 0.36807 seconds
Barnyard exiting

As you can see, Barnyard2 produced the same two alerts from the Unified2 file that appeared in the Unified file processed by Barnyard.

As documented in the barnyard.conf file that ships with Barnyard2, Barnyard2 supports the following output methods:

  • alert_cef (CEF is Common Event Format)
  • alert_fast (demonstrated above)
  • alert_syslog
  • log_ascii (text packet logging)
  • sguil
  • database

Thanks to Jason Brvenik for help with SnortUnified.pm, and thanks to firnsy for help with Barnyard2.

About the author
Richard Bejtlich is the founder of TaoSecurity, author of several books on network security monitoring, including Extrusion Detection: Security Monitoring for Internal Intrusions, and operator of the TaoSecurity blog.


This was first published in November 2008

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