Two-factor authentication and certificates

How they work

Certificates are typically used in conjunction with USB tokens or smart cards

    Requires Free Membership to View

but can be implemented separately. A certificate is assigned to a user, a token or a particular machine and is read during the authentication process. Certificates are much more secure than they were a few years ago due to better encryption and more robust certificate stores.

Pros and cons

Certificates tend to be a stronger style of authentication, but come at a much higher cost. The infrastructure typically required in an enterprise (servers, hierarchical certificate server domain deployment and personnel) is pricey to set up and maintain. Third-party vendor-managed services help, but this authentication is still more expensive than most others reviewed here.

What to do

Organizations with extremely high security requirements, such as government agencies handling classified information, will want to consider certificates. Today, there are discrete pockets of certificate implementations, but with the increasing deployment of USB tokens and TPM chips, this sector is expected to grow over the next decade to become nearly ubiquitous.

Two-factor authentication options

  Smart cards
  Safe mode: Danger zone


About the author
Tom Bowers is the Security Director of Net4NZIX, an independent think tank and industry analyst group, as well as a technical editor for
Information Security magazine. Bowers, who holds the CISSP, PMP and Certified Ethical Hacker certifications, is a well known expert on the topics of data leakage prevention, global enterprise information security architecture and ethical hacking. He is also the president of the Philadelphia chapter of Infragard, the second largest chapter in the country with more than 600 members.

This article originally appeared in Information Security magazine.

This was first published in November 2006

There are Comments. Add yours.

TIP: Want to include a code block in your comment? Use <pre> or <code> tags around the desired text. Ex: <code>insert code</code>

REGISTER or login:

Forgot Password?
By submitting you agree to receive email from TechTarget and its partners. If you reside outside of the United States, you consent to having your personal data transferred to and processed in the United States. Privacy
Sort by: OldestNewest

Forgot Password?

No problem! Submit your e-mail address below. We'll send you an email containing your password.

Your password has been sent to:

Disclaimer: Our Tips Exchange is a forum for you to share technical advice and expertise with your peers and to learn from other enterprise IT professionals. TechTarget provides the infrastructure to facilitate this sharing of information. However, we cannot guarantee the accuracy or validity of the material submitted. You agree that your use of the Ask The Expert services and your reliance on any questions, answers, information or other materials received through this Web site is at your own risk.