What are the various network performance management technologies that can be used?
Any solution provider will need to examine the many technologies available and consider the vendors they want to work with in order to solve the client's problem. You can impose network performance management at the perimeter, from within the network, within "the cloud" or on the WAN connection.
We often employ a traffic shaping and management appliance that sits inline with network traffic that allows us to implement application-level controls. But other solutions may work at the firewall level where you're doing traffic management and monitoring. Again, it's a matter of the client's need, the vendor you prefer and the budget available.